23 Apr 2017,
Directions(1-10) : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
Until the 1960s boys spent longer and went further in school than girls, and were more likely to graduate from university. Now, across the rich world and in a growing number of , poor countries, the balance has tilted the other way. Policymakers once fretted about girls’ . lack of confidence in science but this is changing. Sweden has commissioned research into its “boy crisis”. Australia has devised a reading programme called “Boys, Blokes, Books and Bytes”. In just a couple of generations, one gender gap has closed, only for another to open up. The reversal is laid out in a report published on March 5th by the OECD. a Parisbased richcountry thinktank. Boys’ dominance just about endures in maths: at age 15 they are, on average, the equivalent of three months’ schooling ahead of girls. In science the results are fairly even. But in reading, where girls have been ahead for some time, a gulf has appeared. In all G4 countries and economies in the study, girls outperform boys. The average gap is equivalent to an extra year of schooling. The OECD deems literacy to be the most important skill that it assesses, since further learning depends on it. Sure enough, teenage boys are 50% more likely than girls to fail to achieve basic proficiency in any of maths, reading and science. Youngsters in this group, with nothing to build on or shine at, are prone to drop out of school altogether. To see why boys and girls fare so differently in the classroom, first look at what they do outside it. The average 15year old girl devotes fiveandahalf hours a week to homework, an hour more than the average boy, who spend more time playing video games and trawling the internet. Threequarters of girls read for pleasure, compared with little more than half of boys. Reading rates are falling everywhere as screens draw eyes from pages, but boys are giving up faster. The OECD found that, among boys who do as much homework as the average girl, the gender gap in reading fell by nearly a quarter. Once in the classroom, boys long to be out of it: They are twice as likely as girls to report that school is a “waste of time”, and more often turn up late. Just as a teachers used to struggle to persuade girls that science is not only for men, the OECD now urges parents and policymakers to steer boys away from a version of masculinity that ignores academic achievement. Boys’ disdain for school might have been less irrational when there were plenty of jobs for uneducated men. But those days have long gone. It may be that a bit of swagger helps in maths, where confidence plays a part in boys’ lead (though it sometimes extends to delusion :12% of boys told the OECD that they are familiar with the mathematical concept of “subjunctive sealing”, a red herring that fooled only 7% of girls.) But their lack of self-discipline drives teachers crazy. The OECD found that boys did much better in its anonymised tests than in teachers assessments. What is behind this discrimination? One possibility is that teachers mark up students who are polite, eager and stay out of flights, all attributes that are more common among girls. In some countries, academic points can even be docked for bad behaviour.
Directions (11-15) : Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. Mark the part with the error as your answer. If there is no error, mark ‘No error’ as your answer. (Ignore the errors of punctuation; if any)
11. The fare will be calculated/(1) on the basis of/(2) expected travel time distance/(3)and traffic where applied. (4) No error (5)
12. Junior colleges sees/(1) marginal violations in/(2) minimum score cap for arts,/(3) science and commerce streams. (4) No error (5)
13. The actor has/(1) filed a case/(2) against the director and/(3) has sought a written apology. (4) No error (5)
14. The practice of big pharma companies/(1) offering kickbacks to/(2) prescribing physicians may not be/(3) a breach of ethics. (4) No error (5)
15. The government has narrowed/(1) its list of candidates/(2) to become the next/(3) governor on the RBI. (4) No error (5)
Directions (16-20) : Rearrange the given six sentences/ group of sentences (A), (B), (C), (D), (E) and (F) in a proper sequence so as to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the given questions
A. Others were shown advertisements of more affordable stuff, such as smartphones.
B. This experience shows the complexities of advertising today, when it is so easy for dissatisfied customers to make their voices heard.
C. Moreover, some of those not shown the advertisement complained, referring to themselves as , or (putting it politely)losers.
D. But its advertisement was shown only to those whose profiles suggested they were potential buyers of expensive cars.
E. Eventually, this bruised a few egos.
F. Earlier this year a carmaker advertised on WeChat, a popular messaging app in China with around 550m monthly users.
16 . Which of the following should be the FIRST sentence after the rearrangement ? (1) A (2) C (3) B (4) F (5) E
17. Which of the following should be the SECOND sentence after the rearrangement ? (1) A (2) B (3) F (4) D (5) C
18. Which of the following should be the FOURTH sentence after the rearrangement ? (1) A (2) E (3) C (4) F (5) D
19. Which of the following should be the SIXTH (last) sentence after the rearrangement ? (1) B (2) D (3) A (4) C (5) E
20. Which of the following should be the FIFTH sentence after the rearrangement ? (1) E (2) D (3) A (4) F (5) C
Directions (21-25) : In these questions, the sentence has two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Choose the set of words for the blanks which best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole
21. The Governor’s successor will find the economy in a much better than what it was in when he himself took three years ago. (1) condition, holding (2) turmoil, over (3) shape, charge (4) characters, reigns (5) position, duty
22 . The government’s to consolidate public sector hanks (PSBs) could create in the current environment where stressed assets across banks are high. (1) actions, exposed (2) intend, uncertainty (3) proposal, secure (4) strategise, havoc (5) plans, risks
23. The IT firm may be out as clients shifts to cloud servicesby rivals. (1) venting, existing (2) losing, offered (3) close, provided (4) locking, promising (5) shutting, delivered
24. Inspite of social performs are likely to an ever larger part of marketers’ budget. (1) pitfalls, receive (2) hazards, getting (3) negative, share (4) drawbacks, obtained (5) fallen, have
25. Litigation and hurdles in a potential sale to a Chinese partner have ‘ the company to the closing of one of its plants. (1) raised, changing (2) denying, choose (3) forced, defer (4) enable, modify (5) compelled, defeat
Directions (26-30) : In following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. Against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.There’s been some buzz lately around the notsonew idea that emerging technology is destroying jobs and will (26) destroy the middle class. Fears about a shrinking job pool are …(27)… our economy is still recovering from the recession, and jobs have not returned to prerecession levels. Meanwhile, technology is …(28)… some lowskilled jobs. Yet, changes to the job landscape, while they may require some adjustments, are not bad news for the middle class. …(29)…, advances in innovation and technology promise to make life better for everyone, both professionally and …(30)… .
26. (1) not (2) ultimately (3) securely (4) publicly (5) demandingly
27. (1) understandable (2) weird (3) unjust (4) remanded (5) wrong
28. (1) dicing (2) acquiring (3) replacing (4) lifting (5) paying
29. (1) But (2) Instead (3) Fact (4) Since (5) However
30. (1) workplace (2) shortly (3) personally (4) morosely (5) environmental